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Mycobacteriophages and their potential as source against Mycobacterial active biomolecules

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So, today is the great festival of Christmas……! Birthday of The Son of God.. And on this Auspicious day, We want to present before you all the power of Nature… How nature itself provides solution against the problem raised within it….. We all are aware of the epidemics of threat created by Mycobaterium tuberculosis and other related species. But, down here in this article we show how nature provides the solution against it.

As we know Bacteriophage (Bacterio= Bacteria’s, Phage= eater) infects several bacterium species. In contrast to it, a Mycobacteriophage is a member of a group of bacteriophages that infect mycobacterial species as their hosts e.g.,  Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis.

The rising incidence of tuberculosis, emergence of multi drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a slow progress in finding new drugs makes mycobacteriophage a potential candidate for its use as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool against TB.

All the characterized Mycobacteriophages are double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) tailed phages belonging to the order Caudovirales. Most are of the family Siphoviridae , characterized by  long flexible non contractile tails, whereas phages of the family Myoviridae, have contractile tails. There is a notable absence of mycobacteriophages from the family Podoviridae (containing short stubby tails), arising the question whether long tails are needed to traverse the relatively thick mycobacterial cell envelope. dsDNA tailed phages are either temperate, forming stable lysogens with a turbid plaque or lytic, forming clear plaques in which the host cells are killed. Mycobacteriophages can also be studied by the morphology of the plaques which vary in size and shape. Plaque morphology also depends on the burst size, which is the number of phage particles released on the lysis of the infected bacteria.

Genometrics of 70 sequenced Mycobacteriophages

Since the mycobacterial cell wall consists of a mycolic acid rich Mycobacterial outer membrane, attached to an arabinogalactan layer that is in turn linked to the peptidoglycan, it poses significant challenge to the phages. This challenge is met by a set of proteins, namely Lysin B proteins that cleave the linkage of mycolic acids to the arabinogalactan layer, holins that regulate lysis timing, and the endolysins (LysinAs) that hydrolyze peptidoglycan.

Phages affect hosts with a holin-endolysin system essential for programmed lysis. Endolysin is  found to be associated with a protein component of the phage tail involved in facilitating the penetration of the murein during injection of the genome into the host. Holins are small membrane proteins that form holes in the membrane through which the endolysin can pass. Holins control the length of the infective cycle for lytic phages so as to achieve lysis at an optimal time.

Endolysins can be a source of potential antibacterial because of its specificity (targeting only a few strains of bacteria) and thus replacing antibiotics (which have a more wide ranging effect), their low probababilty of developing resistance in Mycobacterium and novel mode of action.

Bioinformatics can assist this particular field of research by finding several other proteins existing on this planet or to prepare other such options having similar pharmacophore (physical and chemical attributes) properties. We can demolish the various disease threats by using natural options provided to us and can remain healthy on this planet. The only point to be remembered for this is,

NATURE CAN SATISFY OUR NEEDS, BUT IT CANNOT SUSTAIN OUR GREED….. AS A HEALTHY BODY CONSISTS OF A HEALTHY MIND, THE SAME WAY.. A CONSERVED PLANET CONSERVES ITS SPECIES TOO…..

(A major part of this article consist of some texts copied from

Hatfull, Graham F. “Mycobacteriophages: genes and genomes.” Annual review of microbiology 64 (2010): 331-356.

for any other information related references and queries, please let us know at [email protected]

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Bioinformatics Programming

DockingAnalyzer.py: A New Python script to Identify Ligand Binding in Protein Pockets.

Dr. Muniba Faiza

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DockingAnalyzer.py-A Python script to identify ligand binding in protein pockets.

High-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) is a pivotal technique in drug discovery that screens extensive libraries of compounds to find potential drug candidates. One of the essential tasks in HTVS is to ensure that ligands are binding within the protein’s binding pocket. This task can be particularly challenging when dealing with thousands of docking results. To address this challenge, we present a Python script that automates the analysis of molecular docking results generated by AutoDock Vina [1] using PyMOL [2]. This script calculates the center of mass (COM) for each docked pose, compares it with a reference ligand’s COM, and identifies poses that bind within a specified threshold distance. This process is crucial in mass docking scenarios where confirming ligand binding within the pocket is necessary. (more…)

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VS_Analysis: A Python package to perform post-virtual screening analysis

Dr. Muniba Faiza

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VS_Analysis: A Python package to perform post-virtual screening analysis

Virtual screening (VS) is a crucial aspect of bioinformatics. As you may already know, there are various tools available for this purpose, including both paid and freely accessible options such as Autodock Vina. Conducting virtual screening with Autodock Vina requires less effort than analyzing its results. However, the analysis process can be challenging due to the large number of output files generated. To address this, we offer a comprehensive Python package designed to automate the analysis of virtual screening results.

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Proteins shape analyses reveal novel forms and connections.

Dr. Muniba Faiza

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Protein shape analyses reveal novel forms and connections.

A new study has revealed new forms of proteins that have never been seen before along with unexpected connections. Last year, Google DeepMind predicted the structure of all known proteins from organisms using AlphaFold [1].

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Bioinformatics News

What is MANE project?

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What is mane project?

MANE is a collaborative project between NCBI and EMBL-EBI. It stands for Matched Annotation from NCBI and EMBL-EBI [1]. The datasets provided by NCBI and EMBL-EBI on the human genome are not identical across every gene.

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of March 2022

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of March 2022

Here are the latest research developments in the field of bioinformatics made in the month of March 2022. (more…)

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This month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of November 2021

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This month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of November 2021

We summarize the latest research published this month in the field of bioinformatics. (more…)

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of October 2021

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Monthly Bioinformatics Research Updates

In this article, we summarize the latest interesting findings made this month in bioinformatics. (more…)

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BLAST+ 2.12.0- A more efficient version of BLAST is available

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BLAST+ 2.12.0- New version

A new more efficient version of BLAST+ 2.12.o is available now [1]. This version provides more efficient multithreaded searches. (more…)

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of June 2021

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of June 2021

In this article, we summarize the latest interesting findings made this month of June in bioinformatics. (more…)

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of May 2021

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of May 2021

In this article, we summarize the latest interesting findings made this month in bioinformatics. (more…)

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Bioinformatics Research Updates

This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of April 2021

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of April 2021

In this article, we summarize the latest interesting findings made this month in bioinformatics. (more…)

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of March 2021

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Bioinformatics Monthly Research Updates- March 2021

Here, we summarize the latest interesting findings made this month in bioinformatics. (more…)

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of February 2021

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Monthly Research Updates- February 2021

We summarize the research done in bioinformatics in the month of February. (more…)

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of January 2021

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This month in Bioinformatics- January 2021

In this article, we summarize the main findings made in bioinformatics this month. (more…)

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of December 2020

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of December 2020

In this article, we summarize the latest research in bioinformatics published this month. (more…)

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Bioinformatics News

Join Bioinformatics Review Research Group

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We are going to lead a few bioinformatics research projects. For that, we are creating a new research group of Bioinformatics Review. (more…)

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of November 2020

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Research updates of bioinformatics- November 2020

In this article, we summarize the latest research in bioinformatics published this month. (more…)

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This Month in Bioinformatics- Research Updates of October 2020

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monthly-october updates bioinformatics

Some of the important findings made this month in bioinformatics are mentioned in this article. (more…)

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This Month in Bioinformatics: Research Updates of September 2020

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Bioinformatics Monthly updates- September 2020

Some of the important findings made this month in bioinformatics are mentioned in this article. (more…)

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This Month in Bioinformatics: Research Updates of August 2020

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Bioinformatics Research Updates- August 2020

Some of the important findings made this month in bioinformatics are mentioned in this article. (more…)

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