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Phylogenetics

How to calculate dN, dS, and dN/dS ratio on a set of genes using MEGA?

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If you want to get a quick idea about the non-synonymous vs synonymous (dN/dS) substitutions, you can easily use MEGA software [1]. Although HYPHY/Datamonkey provides the best results regarding selection pressure analyses. MEGA also uses HYPHY program [2] to calculate the dN/dS substitutions rate. Here is how you can do it. Continue reading “How to calculate dN, dS, and dN/dS ratio on a set of genes using MEGA?” »

Most widely used tools for phylogenetic tree customization

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Most of the times, it is a very tedious job to convert file formats in bioinformatics, especially when we are dealing with phylogeny. Most of the available online servers mess your file and the output format is also not supported by the other programs. Additionally, it is quite difficult to perform other customizations on the phylogeny tree. Continue reading “Most widely used tools for phylogenetic tree customization” »

Why To Study Evolution?

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Understanding evolution is critical for understanding biology. As the preeminent scientist Theodosius Dobzhansky stated, “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.” Evolution is the only scientific explanation for the diversity of life. It explains the striking similarities among vastly different forms of life, the changes that occur within populations, and the development of new life forms. Excluding evolution from the science curricula or compromising its treatment deprives students of this fundamental and unifying scientific concept to explain the natural world. Continue reading “Why To Study Evolution?” »

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