Cortex is a user-friendly framework for genome analysis . It acquires less memory and is quite efficient in performance. It’s installation involves various steps. In this article, we will install Cortex on Ubuntu.
Let’s update and upgrade the system first. Open the terminal (Ctrl+T) and type the following commands:
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get upgrade
Move inside a directory where you want to download the software. Then, paste the following command in your terminal or download it from here.
$ wget https://dl.bintray.com/thehive-project/binary/cortex-latest.zip
Extract the zip file using the following command and then install.
$ unzip cortex-latest.zip
It will create a new directory in your current directory, namely, ‘cortex-184.108.40.206′. Now, move inside the new directory and create link.
$ cd cortex-3.0.1-1/
$ ln -s cortex-3.0.1-1 cortex
$ sudo addgroup cortex
$ sudo adduser --system cortex
$ sudo cp /cortex/cortex-3.0.1-1/package/cortex.service /usr/lib/systemd/system
$ sudo chown -R cortex:cortex /cortex/cortex-3.0.1-1/
$ sudo chgrp cortex /cortex/cortex-3.0.1-1/package/cortex.conf
$ sudo chmod 640 /cortex/cortex-3.0.1-1/
$ sudo systemctl enable cortex
$ sudo service cortex start
Now, you can easily run Cortex on your system.
- Iqbal, Z., Caccamo, M., Turner, I., Flicek, P., & McVean, G. (2012). De novo assembly and genotyping of variants using colored de Bruijn graphs. Nature genetics, 44(2), 226-232.
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Installing BCFtools on Ubuntu
BCFtools is a set of utilities that are used to manipulate variant call files (VCF) and binary call files (BCF). It can be used for both compressed and uncompressed sort of files. In this article, we will install BCFtools on Ubuntu. (more…)
Installing CRISPRCasFinder on Ubuntu
CRISPR/Cas9 is a genome editing technology trending fastly. It is used to identify CRISPR associated genes within the genomes of prokaryotic bacterias. Several tools are available for this. Amongst them, CRISPRCasFinder is one that is used to search for CRISPRs and Cas genes in sequence data . In this article, we will install CRISPRCasFinder on Ubuntu. (more…)
Genozip- a new compression tool for VCF files
Variant Call Format (VCF) is a text file format used to store thousands of genomic datasets. Since these files consist of a large number of gene sequences, their file size is quite large even after compression. Recently, a new compression tool has been introduced known as genozip . (more…)
Methods to detect the effects of alternative splicing and transcription on proteins
Alternative splicing and the transcription are the most familiar processes amongst the biological processes. Alternative splicing is a process by which various forms of mRNA are generated from the same gene. A gene consists of various exons and introns and the exons are joined together in different ways . (more…)
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Past decade has witnessed an incredible increase in a number of small RNAs. As the name indicates, small RNAs are RNA transcripts of small (approximately 21-24 nucleotide) length [1-8]. These small RNA transcripts regulate various biological processes ranging from a response to biotic/abiotic stress to the determination of tissue specificity [1-8]. Non-coding RNAs are basically classified based on their biogenesis protocol and mode of function. (more…)
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Etiology is the study of origination or causation of an event or phenomenon. Genetic etiology is the study of genes responsible for particular traits along with some other genes in an organism. The identification of genetic etiology has become a protocol while studying genotypes and/or phenotypes of individuals. For this, PRS which means, Polygenic Risk Score is calculated. (more…)
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Mycobacteriophages and their potential as source against Mycobacterial active biomolecules
So, today is the great festival of Christmas……! Birthday of The Son of God.. And on this Auspicious day, We want to present before you all the power of Nature… How nature itself provides solution against the problem raised within it….. We all are aware of the epidemics of threat created by Mycobaterium tuberculosis and other related species. But, down here in this article we show how nature provides the solution against it.
As we know Bacteriophage (Bacterio= Bacteria’s, Phage= eater) infects several bacterium species. In contrast to it, a Mycobacteriophage is a member of a group of bacteriophages that infect mycobacterial species as their hosts e.g., Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis.
The rising incidence of tuberculosis, emergence of multi drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a slow progress in finding new drugs makes mycobacteriophage a potential candidate for its use as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool against TB.
All the characterized Mycobacteriophages are double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) tailed phages belonging to the order Caudovirales. Most are of the family Siphoviridae , characterized by long ﬂexible non contractile tails, whereas phages of the family Myoviridae, have contractile tails. There is a notable absence of mycobacteriophages from the family Podoviridae (containing short stubby tails), arising the question whether long tails are needed to traverse the relatively thick mycobacterial cell envelope. dsDNA tailed phages are either temperate, forming stable lysogens with a turbid plaque or lytic, forming clear plaques in which the host cells are killed. Mycobacteriophages can also be studied by the morphology of the plaques which vary in size and shape. Plaque morphology also depends on the burst size, which is the number of phage particles released on the lysis of the infected bacteria.
Since the mycobacterial cell wall consists of a mycolic acid rich Mycobacterial outer membrane, attached to an arabinogalactan layer that is in turn linked to the peptidoglycan, it poses significant challenge to the phages. This challenge is met by a set of proteins, namely Lysin B proteins that cleave the linkage of mycolic acids to the arabinogalactan layer, holins that regulate lysis timing, and the endolysins (LysinAs) that hydrolyze peptidoglycan.
Phages affect hosts with a holin-endolysin system essential for programmed lysis. Endolysin is found to be associated with a protein component of the phage tail involved in facilitating the penetration of the murein during injection of the genome into the host. Holins are small membrane proteins that form holes in the membrane through which the endolysin can pass. Holins control the length of the infective cycle for lytic phages so as to achieve lysis at an optimal time.
Endolysins can be a source of potential antibacterial because of its specificity (targeting only a few strains of bacteria) and thus replacing antibiotics (which have a more wide ranging effect), their low probababilty of developing resistance in Mycobacterium and novel mode of action.
Bioinformatics can assist this particular field of research by finding several other proteins existing on this planet or to prepare other such options having similar pharmacophore (physical and chemical attributes) properties. We can demolish the various disease threats by using natural options provided to us and can remain healthy on this planet. The only point to be remembered for this is,
NATURE CAN SATISFY OUR NEEDS, BUT IT CANNOT SUSTAIN OUR GREED….. AS A HEALTHY BODY CONSISTS OF A HEALTHY MIND, THE SAME WAY.. A CONSERVED PLANET CONSERVES ITS SPECIES TOO…..
(A major part of this article consist of some texts copied from
Hatfull, Graham F. “Mycobacteriophages: genes and genomes.” Annual review of microbiology 64 (2010): 331-356.
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